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  1. October 13, 2009, 2:53pm WASHINGTON, October 12, 2009 (AFP) - Cash-rich US researchers have again dominated this year's Nobel awards, but it seems identifying the nationality of laureates is not an exact science, and change may be on the way. On the face of things, the United States would top an Olympic-style medals table of Nobel prize wins. Eleven of this year's 13 laureates are citizens of the United States, winning five of the six Nobel awards up for grabs. Even President Barack Obama pocketed a medal. Since the end of World War II, the United States has scooped up 89 Nobel awards for medicine, 74 for physics, 58 for chemistry and dozens more for economics, peace and literature, beating its closest contenders in Britain, France and Germany. Unsurprisingly then, the rest of the world is left to ask how the United States does it. The answer may be, in part, "It doesn't." A look at the curricula vitae of this year's Nobel science winners -- which make up four of the six awards -- shows a complex patchwork of academics criss-crossing the globe to reach the top their profession. "You have to ask where they studied," said Sharon Bertsch McGrayne, an American who has written a book profiling female Nobel laureates. "Many of our scientists have done their post-docs in Europe," she said, pointing to high migration levels among top scientists. This year's crop of laureates shows just how difficult it is to determine the nationality of globe-trotting laureates, especially based on Nobel citations which use citizenship at the time of award. Charles Kao who shared the 2009 prize for physics for his work in developing fiber optics is a US citizen, but he was born in Shanghai, educated in London and now lives in Hong Kong. Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who shared the prize for chemistry, was born in India, works in Britain, but has US citizenship. Australian-born Elizabeth Blackburn is also a US citizen, but studied at the universities of Melbourne and Cambridge before a post doctoral degree at Yale. Willard Boyle, who won also shared the physics prize for his work on semiconductors, is Canadian and studied at Montreal's McGill University, but now has American citizenship. Obama -- despite claims by his most vociferous critics -- is among the most unquestionably American of the laureates. According to research from Britain's University of Warwick, published last January, scientific migration is common, and vastly beneficial to the United States. "Nearly half of the world's most-cited physicists work outside their country of birth," the study said. A survey of 158 of the most highly cited physicists showed systematic migration to nations with large research and development spending, most notably the United States. "At birth, 29.7 percent of physicists are in the USA. This increases to 43.4 percent at first degree, to 55.1 percent at PhD, and to 67.1 percent presently," the report said. "In 1987-2006, for example, five out of fourteen of all UK-educated laureates had moved to the USA by the time they won the Nobel prize." Still, the United States can claim to have forged the institutes and universities that attract top-flight researchers for award-winning research. According to State Department figures, every year the United States issues over 35,000 visas for exceptional scientists and others who flock to well-funded institutes. But the real key to US Nobel dominance, according to Roger Geiger, a professor of education at Pennsylvania State University, is cash -- particularly the massive influx of cash to the US education system after World War II. "We were funding research when others were not, or when others could not," he said pointing to post-war Europe's economic malaise. That advantage has stuck. Today, Harvard University's endowment alone is worth around $27 billion, roughly equal to Costa Rica's gross domestic product. Still, Harvard's nest egg has shrunk by $10 billion since the start of the fiscal year thanks to a financial crisis that Geiger says will erode American universities' attraction. "The crisis has been longer and more deeply felt in the United States, that will have an impact," he said. At the same time, European and Asian universities are increasing the type of innovative research that wins awards. "Other countries have recognized the importance of this type of competition," said Geiger who sees change already taking place. "The rest of the world is competing, the law of numbers says they will catch up. If you look at publication and citation counts, Nobel prizes are a lagging indicator." In some disciplines, the playing field has already been leveled and could provide a glimpse of the competition if other regions match US funding levels. Europeans still dominate the Fields Medal for mathematics or the Pritzker Prize for architecture, both areas which can require less research funding. An American has not won the Nobel Prize for Literature since Toni Morrison's award 16 years ago. As one Nobel judge tersely put it Americans "don't really participate in the big dialogue of literature." But in the sciences at least, Americans are not only part of the dialogue, but still have the last word, even if the word is spoken with a foreign lilt. http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/224495/us-nobel-sweep-points-brain-drain
  2. Le prix Nobel d'économie s'attend à une longue période de récession aux États-Unis et prédit l'élection de Barack Obama en raison de la politique rejetée des républicains. Pour en lire plus...
  3. Montreal’s cash-strapped universities have a wealth of notable and famous alumni who got their start at one of our local universities before leaving their mark on this province and beyond. Across the fields of business, science, politics and the arts, there are countless examples of notable alumni who earned a degree at a Montreal university before making it big. The list from Université de Montréal reads like a veritable Who’s Who of Quebec leaders, while McGill University has an embarrassment of riches, with bragging rights to the longest list of notables across all fields and by far the most prestigious prize winners. Here are some examples of those famous alumni (with apologies to the many accomplished graduates we didn’t have space to include). We have also included Nobel Prize winners and the number of Rhodes Scholars to round out the list of distinguished alumni. Montreal universities have bragging rights to many famous alumni | Montreal Gazette
  4. La multinationale hollandaise Akzo Nobel annoncera aujourd'hui la vente les marques de peinture Para et Crown Diamond. Pour en lire plus...
  5. Seules les leçons tirées du passé, de la crise des années 30 ou de crises économiques plus récentes, peuvent permettre d'éviter une nouvelle grande dépression, a estimé dimanche le lauréat 2008 du prix Nobel d'économie Paul Krugman. Pour en lire plus...
  6. Le prix Nobel d'économie a été attribué lundi à l'Américain Paul Krugman, 55 ans, pour ses travaux sur les échanges commerciaux, a annoncé l'Académie royale suédoise des sciences. Pour en lire plus...
  7. http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/nobel-reit-is-moving-downtown-montreal-577586241.html 2016 /CNW Telbec/ - (TSXV: NEL.UN) Nobel Real Estate Investment Trust (the "REIT" or "Nobel REIT") is pleased to announce that it is moving its head office into its most recent acquisition located at 2045 Stanley in Downtown Montreal. Our offices are therefore closed today for the move; they will reopen in our new premises on Monday May 2nd. The REIT will then be reachable again at its new phone number, 514-840-9339.
  8. Le prix Nobel d'économie Joseph Stiglitz a minimisé les risques à court terme d'effondrement du système financier mondial. Pour en lire plus...
  9. Flo


    Après Patrick Modiano le Nobel de littérature, c'est au tour de Jean Tirole chercheur à l'Université Toulouse 1 Capitole de remporter le prix Nobel de... l'économie. C'est un pied de nez au French bashing tel que pratiqué par The Economist, the Financial Times & Co. Le Français Jean Tirole sacré prix Nobel d'économie 2014 Publié à 13h08, le 13 octobre 2014, Modifié à 15h21, le 13 octobre 2014 Après le prix Nobel de la Paix, le Nobel de littérature ou encore de médecine, place au prix Nobel d'économie. Et c'est le français Jean Tirole, chercheur à l'université de Toulouse, qui a été récompensé. Il est primé pour son "analyse de la puissance du marché et de la régulation", a annoncé le jury dans un communiqué. Le troisième Français récompensé. Chercheur resté fidèle à l'université de Toulouse depuis les années 1990, après être revenu de l'université américaine MIT, Jean Tirole était cité parmi les favoris du Nobel depuis quelques années. Agé de 61 ans, il n'avait pas attendu l'annonce de Stockholm pour bénéficier d'une réputation mondiale: son CV remplit 24 pages de distinctions, publications et prix en tous genres (prix Claude Levi-Strauss en 2010, prix récompensant le meilleur jeune économiste européen en 1993). Originaire de Troyes, Jean Tirole est le troisième Français récompensé par le prix Nobel d'économie après Gérard Debreu en 1983 et Maurice Allais en 1988. "C'est un petit peu intimidant (...). Suivre leur trace est quelque chose de très impressionnant pour moi", a réagi Jean Tirole sur France Info. Il recevra son prix, et la récompense de 8 millions de couronnes suédoises (environ 878.000 euros), le 10 décembre à Stockholm. Un spécialiste de la théorie de l'information et de la régulation. Présenté par le comité Nobel comme "l'un des économistes les plus influents de notre époque" malgré sa modestie, il a notamment "éclairci la manière de comprendre et de réglementer les industries avec quelques entreprises importantes". "La meilleure régulation ou politique en matière de concurrence doit (...) être soigneusement adaptée aux conditions spécifiques de chaque secteur. Dans une série d'articles et de livres, Jean Tirole a présenté un cadre général pour concevoir de telles politiques et l'a appliqué à un certain nombre de secteurs, qui vont des télécoms à la banque", a résumé l'Académie royale des sciences. "En s'inspirant de ces nouvelles perspectives, les gouvernements peuvent mieux encourager les entreprises puissantes à devenir plus productives et, dans le même temps, les empêcher de faire du tort à leurs concurrents et aux consommateurs", a-t-elle ajouté. En clair, l'apparition de crises n'est à ses yeux pas de la seule responsabilité des acteurs économiques : elles résultent aussi et surtout des défaillances des régulateurs. Interrogé par Les Echos sur les origines de la crise de 2008, l'économiste mettait en avant "une défaillance des institutions étatiques nationales et supranationales", allant jusqu'à parler de "laxisme" imputé à "des institutions de régulation défaillantes". Ayant travaillé avec Jean-Jacques Laffont, Jean Tirole a notamment participé à conceptualiser le marché des émissions de CO2. Parmi ses propositions les plus connues, il a aussi recommandé d'instaurer un taxe de licenciement, qui augmenterait en fonction du nombre de personnes renvoyées par une même entreprise, mais aussi un contrat unique qui remplacerait les CDI et CDD. "La fierté de notre pays". Les réactions enthousiastes n'ont pas tardé, de la part de Manuel Valls, du ministre de l'Economie ou encore de Jacques Attali. "Ce prix Nobel marque une école française (...) liée à la régulation (...) C'est la reconnaissance d'une pensée économique française qui a une forme de singularité dans le monde aujourd'hui", a renchéri Stéphane Le Foll, porte-parole du gouvernement. http://www.europe1.fr/economie/le-prix-nobel-d-economie-pour-un-francais-2258451
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