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36 résultats trouvés

  1. For a while now I have been thinking about how Canada would be like, if we actually had a decent size population. I found an article from the Globe and Mail from a few years ago, saying we should really consider increasing the number of immigrants coming to this country. How do we get 1.9 million new people to move to Canada and live here, each and every year? Yes, the current major cities like Toronto and Montreal will continue to grow, but we should find ways to get other cities to grow also. If we did manage to get to 100,000,000 people living in Canada by 2050, we would have a density of 10 people per sq.km. That would be almost similar to present day Russia (excl. the annexation of Crimea). The US has 35 people per sq.km. With that we would see Canada explode to well over 300 million people. Yes it would be a lot of more mouths to feed. Plus we would need a rapid expansion in new urban centers across the provinces and especially the territories. We would also need to develop/revitalize current industries and create new industries. I know the energy (petrol) and mining sectors are in the toilet, but if we managed to increase the population, we would probably bring those industries back to life. We may be able to finally fly Montreal to Vancouver or within this country for cheaper or drive through the Prairies and be bored out of our minds or even driving all the way to Iqaluit and not worry about the gas tank, seeing there may be a station close by and not 1000's of km away. Also we can finally see many of the national parks and provincial/territorial parks, that are inaccessible and costs 10s of thousands of to visit. The reason I bring up the territories, they are grossly under populated. If there are more people there and more towns/cities connecting them to the south, the cost of living there will decrease. Plus by 2050-2100, more people will be moving north because of climate change. I found one agency formulate by 2050, we would see Canada's population grow to well under 50 million, we would be one of the wealthiest per capita, but our GDP would be lower. If we could increase the population to 100 million and also find a way to still have a similar GDP per capita as the one forecast for 2050 with 50 million, we would be the 4th wealthiest instead of the 17th. It is a long shot and I know Canada has a lot to do before that time, but we should really think about the future of this country.
  2. On vient de me recommander ce livre; sûrement qu'il y en aura ici qui seront intéressés... The Endless City At the turn of the twenty-first century, the world is faced with an unprecedented challenge. It must address a fundamental shift in the world’s population towards the cities, and away from mankind’s rural roots.Over the course of two years, a group of internationally renowned professionals from a variety of different disciplines and backgrounds gathered together in six world cities to take stock of the new urban condition and to offer an approach to dealing with it. The Urban Age conferences – organised by the London School of Economics and Political Science and Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen Society – centred on six very different cities. In Shanghai and Mexico City, the urban population is experiencing rapid growth and change,while Berlin is coming to terms with shrinking expectations.The result was a sometimes passionate, always challenging and informed debate on how architects, urbanists, politicians and policy makers can constructively plan the infrastructure and development of the endless city, to promote a better social and economic life for its citizens. 34 contributors from across Europe, South America, China, Africa and the U.S. set the agenda for the city – detailing its successes as well as its failures. Authoritatively edited by Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic, The Endless City presents the outcome of this pioneering initiative on the future of cities. It has a follow-up volume called Living in the Endless City (2011). http://lsecities.net/publications/books/the-endless-city/
  3. Montreal's Jews aren't going anywhere By Yoni Goldstein The history of Russian Jews in Montreal, Canada, began more than a century ago, when a coalition of Jews and Christians in the city raised funds to help Jews escape from the Russian empire in the wake of an onslaught of pogroms triggered by the assassination of czar Alexander II, in March 1881. There are widely varying estimates on the current size of the Russian Jewish community in Montreal: The local Jewish federation believes there are fewer than 10,000 Russian-speaking Jews in the city, while Russian community officials claim the actual number is more than double that figure. In either case, a community center and a Russian-language biweekly newspaper attest to the fact that Russian Jews have established a vibrant community in the city (whose total Jewish population is about 100,000). Of course, as in virtually every city outside Israel where there is a Jewish presence, life for the Jews of Montreal is not without challenges. The city has been home to some minor-league anti-Semitism in the past, and the province of Quebec is proving to be mildly hostile to anyone who can't speak in French and isn't willing to learn how. But the biggest threat to Montreal Jews, the Quebec sovereignty movement of the 1970s and then later, in the early-1990s, has more recently lost favor in the eyes of more Quebecois than ever before. Now is a good time to be a Jew in Montreal. Apparently, Nativ, the formerly clandestine organization that since the 1950s has shared responsibility for bringing Jews from what is now the Former Soviet Union to Israel, and Israel's minister of strategic affairs, Avigdor Lieberman, don't agree. According to recent stories in Haaretz and the European Jewish Press service, having apparently run out of Jews still living in the FSU to bring to Israel, Nativ is planning to make a new push in North America to recruit Russian Jews there to make aliyah. Target No. 1: Montreal. It's a peculiar strategy: aiming to do business in a country that has two significant, settled communities of Russian Jews (the other being Toronto, where some 90,000 live); a country that is safe for Jews and where Jewish communities have long prospered; and a country, moreover, to which disadvantaged immigrants flock and where they are welcomed in droves, where they can experience multiculturalism and inclusiveness. When you're trying to convince people to leave peaceful, thriving Canada for a better life in the Middle East, you know you're in trouble of some kind. The only ones that look bad in this story are Nativ and Lieberman. The decision to recruit in Montreal is, at best, misguided. Worse, it demonstrates that the brand of covert immigration missions that were Nativ's bread and butter between the 1950s and 1990s is no longer needed. For 30 years, the organization was solely responsible for assisting countless Jewish escapees from the Soviet scourge, but that very important work is now finished. Jews who, under the hammer and sickle, were unable either to express themselves Jewishly, or to leave for someplace else where they would be free to do just that, are now at liberty to choose where they want to live, including Israel. In fact, Nativ's decision to choose Montreal's as its first stop in North America proves just how out of touch the organization is. (Already in Germany, Nativ has provoked a protest from Jewish communal leaders because of similar efforts there to lobby Russian-immigrant Jews to depart for Israel.) According to estimates from the city's Jewish federation, 80-85 percent of Russian Jews living in Montreal actually moved there from Israel. These people have already been the beneficiaries of Nativ once, and yet, at some later point, they decided that Israel wasn't the right place for them after all. There's no reason to think that they would consider moving back now, no matter how hard aliyah-liaison officers try to convince them. Nativ's venture into Montreal is doomed to fail because the organization's brand of cloak-and-dagger aliyah recruitment simply isn't suited to today's Jewish global village. Its employment of old-style Zionist tactics, which depict the State of Israel as representing the final stronghold against a world of Jew-haters doesn't connect with people anymore. There are, after all, other perfectly suitable homes for Jews. Montreal is one of those places. Perhaps the time has come for Israel in general to reevaluate its relationship with Diaspora Jewry and acknowledge that there are other places in the world perfectly suited to Jewish living. Once it takes that first step, the next job would be to recognize that the overall relationship between Israel and the Diaspora must change. Instead of looking at the Diaspora as a temporary home for those Jews who can't or aren't ready yet to make aliyah, Israel should invest in forming bonds with Jewish communities around the globe. Nativ, which has been reorganized and reportedly has a fat new budget, might even consider investing some of its cash in making those communities healthier, much in the same way those communities have long invested in the welfare of Israel. Montreal's Russian Jews aren't going anywhere and neither are the vast majority of Jews - Russian-speaking or otherwise - in North and South America and Europe. The sooner the Israeli government realizes that fact, the sooner it can begin to forge a new, symbiotic relationship with all the Jews outside Israel who are quite content to stay right where they are. Yoni Goldstein is an editorial writer at Canada's National Post, and a columnist at the Canadian Jewish News.
  4. Toronto's two solitudes: Poor city beside rich city Nov 20, 2008 04:30 AM Comments on this story (3) David Hulchanski "We heard as well about parents whose struggle to hold down two or three jobs leaves them with no time or energy to parent, of youth being humiliated by the obviousness of their poverty, of the impact of precarious and substandard housing on their ability to study and learn and engage with friends, and about the numerous other daily stresses of living on the margins of a prosperous society." – Review of the Roots of Youth Violence, Vol. 1, p. 31. We learned last week that among the roots of youth violence is the lack of good jobs – jobs that support a family, jobs that support an average lifestyle, jobs that support good quality housing. Though we already knew this, as a society we need to stop moving in the opposite direction. It wasn't too long ago that our language did not include terms like "good jobs," "bad jobs" or "the working poor." How could you work and be poor? Many people today are working more than full-time and are poor. They have no choice but to live in the growing number of very poor neighbourhoods. Money buys choice. Many neighbourhoods are becoming poor in the sense that most of the residents are living in poverty, and poor in the sense that housing, public services and transit access are all inferior relative to the rest of the city. The growing polarization between rich and poor is happening in part because of the loss of average, middle-income jobs. There used to be far fewer concentrations of disadvantage in Toronto. In the early 1970s about two-thirds of the City of Toronto's neighbourhoods (66 per cent) were middle-income – within 20 per cent of the average individual in-come of the metropolitan area. By 2005, the middle income group of neighbourhoods had declined to less than one-third (29 per cent). The trend is the same in the communities around the city's boundaries – the 905 area. The number of middle-income neighbourhoods declined by 25 per cent, from 86 per cent to 61 per cent, during the same period. Now 20 per cent of the neighbourhoods in the 905 area have very low average individual incomes, compared to none in 1970. This income polarization – the decline of the middle group with growth in the two extreme poles – is not only a general trend among Toronto's population, but it also is the basis of where we live. The City of Toronto is now divided into increasingly distinct zones. One zone of tremendous wealth and prosperity, about 20 per cent of the city, is located mainly along the Yonge corridor and stretching east and west along Bloor and Danforth. Average household income was $170,000 in 2005, 82 per cent of the population is white, only 4 per cent are recent immigrants (arriving 2001 to 2006), and only 2 per cent are black. Some of these neighbourhoods are more white and had fewer foreign-born residents in 2005 than in 1995. In contrast, there is a huge zone of concentrated disadvantage. It is still located in part in the traditional inner-city neighbourhoods, but now is also in the inner suburbs, the car-oriented areas built during the 1960s and 1970s. This is 40 per cent of the city, about 1.1 million people. Close to one-third of residents live in poverty (are below the low-income cut-off measure used by the federal government). Only 34 per cent are white, 15 per cent are recent immigrants, and 12 per cent are black. Federal and provincial economic policies, while seemingly abstract and high-level, play themselves out on the ground in our neighbourhoods. Paying a growing segment of the population wages that do not support individuals, let along families, at a basic standard of living and a fundamental level of dignity is not sustainable. The now well-documented rise in income inequality, income polarization and ethnocultural and skin colour segregation are city-destroying trends. They are trends produced by commission and omission, by public and private sector decisions. We need to use our regulatory power for the common good to focus on improving the labour market through measures like a living wage and providing people with a voice in working conditions via a fairer path to unionization. One-sided policy-making is not only generating greater disadvantage, it is destroying the city as a great place to live and work. Nothing is trickling down. The city is increasingly segregating itself as the social distance between rich and poor increases. Immigrants are arriving in a very different economy than they did 30 and 40 years ago. A recent Statistics Canada study concludes, for example, "that the wage gap between newly hired employees and other employees has been widening over the past two decades," the "relative importance of temporary jobs has increased substantially among newly hired employees," and that compared with "the early 1980s, fewer male employees are now covered by a registered pension plan." In short, policies have allowed fewer jobs to pay a living wage with good benefits. This did not happen by accident. It is not only possible but essential that we have an economy with good jobs with at least a minimum living wage for all. We need public policies that support the goals of a just and inclusive society, and we have to ensure that the use of political power benefits the common good. These are key goals of the Good Jobs Coalition and form the agenda for Saturday's Good Jobs Summit. They are essential to reversing the city-destroying trends at work in Toronto today. David Hulchanski is a University of Toronto professor and author of the report The Three Cities within Toronto. This is one of a series of essays created for the Good Jobs Summit, which takes place Nov. 22 in Toronto.
  5. I have an idea...lets keep the status quo. By Nicolas Van Praet Montreal • Forget Newfoundland, derided for decades as the fish-dependent fiscal laughingstock of Canada. Another province is swiftly climbing the ranks of the penniless: Quebec. Quebecers will displace their fellow countrymen as the poorest Canadians if current income and purchasing power trends continue, according to a new study released Tuesday by Montreal’s HEC business school. The stark outlook underscores the urgency for Canada’s second-largest province to fix its structural problems and lends weight to arguments that its untapped natural resources should be developed. Related “Compared to the rest of the country, Quebec has a real revenue problem,” says Martin Coiteux, an economist who wrote the study for the HEC’s Centre for Productivity and Prosperity. Unless the province begins an honest, nothing-off-limits self-examination, “it runs the risk of finding itself last among Canadian provinces with respect to income and standard of living.” It’s the trend lines that should be worrying Quebecers, Mr. Coiteux said. The income gap is widening between Quebec and Canada’s richest provinces while it is shrinking with the poorest. Over a 31-year period from 1978 to 2009, every region of Canada gained on income against Quebec, according to the study. Buoyed by revenues from offshore oil, Newfoundland has bridged the income gap with Quebec to within $3,127 per adult as of 2009. Ontario’s income was $9,853 higher per adult that year while Alberta’s was $17,947 higher. That in itself is problematic for Quebec. But the HEC research also shows that one of the key things that made living in Quebec so attractive, namely the lower cost of living compared with other big provinces, is also rapidly changing. While it remains cheaper to buy consumer goods like food, gasoline and haircuts in Quebec than most other provinces (9% cheaper in Quebec than Alberta in 2009 for Statistics Canada’s standard Consumer Price Index basket of goods, for example), the difference is narrowing. And that makes the purchase power equation even worse for the French-speaking province. What explains this income nightmare? Mr. Coiteux summed it up thus: “Proportionately, fewer Quebecers work [than other Canadians]. They work fewer hours on average. And they earn an hourly pay that’s lower than that of most other Canadians.” The relative poverty of Quebec means that its residents pay less in federal income tax and receive more transfers than those living in richer provinces, which reduces the income gap with Ontario, Alberta and B.C. But that situation also represents “a form of dependency,” Mr. Coiteux noted. Provincial wealth in Canada is increasingly split along the lines of those who have natural resource wealth and those who do not. In addition to a bounty of hydroelectric power and aluminum production, Quebec also has known shale natural gas and oil deposits on its territory. The Liberal government of Jean Charest has signalled it is eager to tap its forestry and mining wealth, most notably with its plan to develop a vast portion of its northern territory twice the size of Texas. It has put oil and gas commercialization on the back burner in the face of public opposition and a continuing ocean boundary spat with Newfoundland. But even the northern development plan isn’t generating unanimity. Quebecers have proven to be tremendously shy in using their resources to generate wealth, says Youri Chassin, economist at the Montreal Economic Institute, a conservative think-tank. “We are kind of afraid of the consequences. And it might be good to have public debate about this. But [in that debate], we have to take into account that we are getting poorer.”
  6. http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-03-14/micro-apartments-in-the-big-city-a-trend-builds Always happy to see quotes from professors at my alma mater, especially when it comes to real estate issues! Micro-Apartments in the Big City: A Trend Builds By Venessa Wong March 14, 2013 6:00 PM EDT Imagine waking in a 15-by-15-foot apartment that still manages to have everything you need. The bed collapses into the wall, and a breakfast table extends down from the back of the bed once it’s tucked away. Instead of closets, look overhead to nooks suspended from the ceiling. Company coming? Get out the stools that stack like nesting dolls in an ottoman. Micro-apartments, in some cases smaller than college dorm rooms, are cropping up in North American cities as urban planners experiment with new types of housing to accommodate growing numbers of single professionals, students, and the elderly. Single-person households made up 26.7 percent of the U.S. total in 2010, vs. 17.6 percent in 1970, according to Census Bureau data. In cities, the proportion is often higher: In New York, it’s about 33 percent. And these boîtes aren’t just for singles. The idea is to be more efficient and eventually to offer cheaper rents. To foster innovation, several municipalities are waiving zoning regulations to allow construction of smaller dwellings at select sites. In November, San Francisco reduced minimum requirements for a pilot project to 220 square feet, from 290, for a two-person efficiency unit. In Boston, where most homes are at least 450 sq. ft., the city has approved 300 new units as small as 375 sq. ft. With the blessing of local authorities, a developer in Vancouver in 2011 converted a single-room occupancy hotel into 30 “micro-lofts” under 300 sq. ft. Seattle and Chicago have also green-lighted micro-apartments. “In the foreseeable future, this trend will continue,” says Avi Friedman, a professor and director of the Affordable Homes Research Group at McGill University’s School of Architecture. A growing number of people are opting to live alone or not to have children, he says. Among this group, many choose cities over suburbs to reduce reliance on cars and cut commute times. “Many people recognize that there is a great deal of value to living in the city,” he says. Friedman calls the new fashion for micro-digs the “Europeanization” of North America. In the U.K. the average home is only 915 square feet. In the U.S. the average new single-family home is 2,480 square feet. The National Association of Home Builders expects that to shrink to 2,152 square feet by 2015. Small living has deep roots in Japan, where land is scarce. “It’s just the way things have always been done,” says Azby Brown, an architect and author of The Very Small Home: Japanese Ideas for Living Well in Limited Space. Three hundred square feet may sound tight, but consider that Japanese families historically lived in row houses outfitted with 100-square-foot living quarters and large communal areas. After World War II, Japan’s homes grew, though not much by American standards. By the late 1980s the average Japanese home measured 900 square feet. Tight quarters demand ingenuity and compromise. Think of the Japanese futon or the under-the-counter refrigerator, a feature of European apartments. The Murphy bed gets a sleek makeover in a mock-up of a micro-apartment on exhibit at the Museum of the City of New York. The 325-square-foot space, designed by New York architect Amie Gross, also features a table on wheels that can be tucked under a kitchen counter and a flat-screen TV that slides along a rail attached to built-in shelves. Visual tricks such as high ceilings and varied floor materials make the space feel roomier. The show, titled “Making Room: New Models for Housing New Yorkers,” displays some of the entries from a design competition sponsored by New York’s Department of Housing Preservation and Development. The winning team, comprising Monadnock Development, Actors Fund Housing Development, and nArchitects, secured permission to erect a 10-story building in Manhattan made of prefabricated steel modules. Some of the 55 units will be as small as 250 square feet. “The hope is that with more supply, that should help with the affordability of these kinds of apartments so that the young or the elderly can afford to live closer to the center and not have to commute so far in,” says Mimi Hoang, a co-founder of nArchitects. Although tiny, these properties aren’t cheap, at least not on a per-square-foot basis. In San Francisco, where two projects are under way, rents will range from $1,200 to $1,500 per month. In New York, the 20-odd units for low- and middle-income renters will start at $939. Ted Smith, an architect in San Diego, says singles would be better served by residences that group efficiency studios into suites with communal areas for cooking, dining, and recreation. “The market does not want little motel rooms to live in,” he says. “There needs to be cool, hip buildings that everyone loves and goes, ‘Man, these little units are wonderful,’ not ‘I guess I can put up with this.’ ” BusinessWeek - Home ©2013 Bloomberg L.P. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  7. MONTREAL'S FIRST 100% GREEN CONDO AND TOWNHOUSE PROJECT Overview Located minutes from Montreal’s downtown core and the historic Atwater Market, Maison Productive House (MpH) is a contemporary, green living project that offers a contemporary architecture that makes sustainable urban living bountiful and verdant. At Maison Productive House empowers consumers to live intelligently. Maison Productive House offers you two housing choices to meet you specific needs, Condo and Townhouse. Each unity offers a contemporary and green design that is both rich in space and refined in its architecture. MpH residences offer a privileged, refined living environment, which is refined and avant-garde. MpH perpetuates the exceptional architectural style with the most advanced Green (sustainable living) elements. MpH is Montreal’s first ecological design that seeks carbon-neutrality and addresses various productive aspects of a responsible lifestyle: alternative energy, food garden, active transportation, more personal productivity and leisure time. Here are some of the design principles that inspired the vision for the MpH Its walking distance from Charlevoix metro station Amenities MpH is very green. Its infrastructure can contribute to the environment instead of being as drain upon it. Maison Productive House seeks a LEED® Platinum certification and follows zero-emission development (ZED) design principles. What is unique about the MpH project is that it is Novoclimat® certified, uses Solar Panel and Geo-thermal energy; includes EnergyStar® appliances, dual-flush toilets and radiant heated floors. Additional examples of this unique project include: Onsite garden Custom-built doors kitchens and stairways using FSC or reclaimed wood or bottles No use of VOC products in lacquers, and natural fibers wherever possible (insulation, wall structure). Social and productive spaces, mixing ecological and social functions, such as: its year-round greenhouse, sauna, meditation room, and laundry room recovering grey waters and balcony. The sauna is strategically placed to allow for voluntary heat loss that directly will benefit the otherwise passively heated (solar) greenhouse. The greenhouse is supplied with recouped rainwater and filtered gray water for irrigation. Other amenities include: - Attention to linkages between outdoor and indoor spaces with the innovation of SunSpaces and ample roof, garden and balcony spaces for social interaction and growing. - Artisan bakery integrated into the residential development - Creation of possible income-streams to owners through rental spaces - Proximity to public transportation and the provision of a shared car service - Both inside and outside the greenhouse, the roof is maximized for growing vegetables. Cold-frames are integrated in the roof balustrade with seasonal covers to extend the growing season. - This social gathering area will have all the amenities for Bar-B-Qs, sun-bathing and gardening. - The Sauna uses an electrically-powered design which utilizes pine wood and is large enough for 4-6 people. - In addition to the roof greenhouse, every owner has their own private plot for growing fruits and vegetables in the garden as well as access to a fruit orchard and a herbal garden. - Water filtration systems: Units 2,4 and laundry room have recycled gray waters. Also personal units are supplied with carbon filters in the kitchen counters to provide the cleanest possible drinking water. backview They say they have 55% sold. It seems like they have 3-4 condos [only 1 left] (each are 3.5 equalling 809 sq.ft) and there is 4 townhouses [only 2 left] PDF File
  8. Dear all, I have been a member of MtUrb since day 1, less active with posts now than I was a few years back, but always an avid reader. So, new developments in Montreal are really surprises when I go back "home" every few years. For you see, I have been living in Hong Kong for the past 5 years, enjoying life in the most transit-efficient city in the world. But this post is not about Hong Kong, it is about re-discovering Montreal... Last time my wife and I came back to Canada was 3 years ago. As usual, we enjoyed our time and visited our friends and family in Montreal, Quebec City, Ottawa (where we lived and worked for over 12 years) and Toronto. I remember thinking back then that while Montreal was cooler, Toronto was the boom town, and Ottawa was the sleepy, quaint, moneyed high tech capital. How things changed in 3 years. Ottawa seemed to us like it went down the drain; unbearable traffic, no high-tech rumble anymore (loss of Nortel?), a feeling as it somewhat had lost its soul somewhere in suburbia... Not quite sure how to pin it down but it felt empty. Quebec City didn't change much; we never cared for it much as we always thought the old Quebec to be an island of pretty in a sea of bland. Toronto is still booming, but still looking for its heart... As I said, none of the real-estate development in Montreal should have surprised me since I was aware of every single one of them, thanks to you guys, but they did, in a big way. I could feel the vibrancy. In the new buildings, parks, squares, sure. But also in the attitude; I felt positivism and renewed joie-de-vivre. Food trucks that hasn't been allowed for decades are now back in full force, Ste-Catherine no longer felt like an unfortunate and sometimes decrepit metaphor for the two solitudes. Yeah, coming from Ottawa on the Metropolitain, or crossing the bridges made a Hong-Konger think that North-America hasn't quite gotten out of the stone-age of transportation. But I saw more people in the city of Montreal than ever before; people working, living and playing within urbanity. I also, for the first time, really saw the concept of urban villages materialize before my eyes, be it downtown in the condo environments, in NDG with its eclectic combination of tree-hugging concepts such as urban-gardens, and the sense that people truly understood that in order for sustainability to exist, it needs to be financially viable (overheard of discussion of a green entrepreneur planning how he was going to make his rooftop gardens profitable). Like it or not, one also cannot deny that Ferrandez has changed the face of the Plateau; I thought the density of people biking was a sight to behold. Maybe I was dreaming and under the influence of so much amazing food (and ok, a good amount of red wine too...) that I partially lost my mind but beyond all of the impressive public money investments (CHUM, parks, new Metro trains, etc, etc), I thought, talking to people and "feeling" the city-beat, that I could feel a paradigm-shift or the beginning of one: the private sector investing in Montreal, believing in it (naysayers just have to spend 5 minutes at the corner of René-Levesque and De La Montagne to be convinced), and residents that seem to have moved on from the rut, looking forward instead of back... I hope that continues when, hopefully, one day, I decide to move back to Canada and, maybe, settle down in Montreal. We thoroughly enjoyed our time. I leave you with 2 pictures. Hard to say that Montreal is at a standstill. The old 'Carriere Miron' is becoming one of the largest park in Montreal, here's what I would do with it. Picture was taken from the north-west corner. I'm not an artist but, you get the idea... Have a great rest of this wonderful summer! JC
  9. jesseps

    Building a home

    My parents can not stand Old Montreal, anymore and they have been living here since May. They are planning on moving back to the West Island in about 24 months. I told them about prefab homes. My mother was like, those do not work here seeing you need a basement. My father was like you do not need one. So my question is, do you need a basement or can you have something above ground and nothing under?
  10. https://medium.com/@transitapp/the-mini-villages-of-montreal-s-metro-6900e158b2a The metro is the backbone of Montreal. Besides New York City and Mexico City, Montreal’s annual ridership is higher than every other subway system in North America. It’s a feel-good story if you’re from Montreal. But there are lots of big cities in North America. Why has the STM — Montreal’s transit authority — been so successful in getting us to ride the metro? One big reason: Montreal’s metro stations are incredibly well-integrated within the city’s densest neighbourhoods. Would you take the metro if it took you an hour to get there? Probably not. That’s why when urban planners design transit systems, they try to optimize transit station walksheds: the area around a transit station accessible by foot. Just because your grandpa walked seven miles to school (uphill both ways) doesn’t mean you should. Having a metro station within walking distance makes it more likely that you’ll actually use public transit, and not have to rely on a car. This visualization shows the population that lives within walking distance of each Montreal rail station: Montreal rail station walksheds’ population within 800m of stations. The sizes of the circles and the numbers inside them correspond to the population in 1,000 people (24 = 24,000). How does your station compare? In other words, if you were to shout really loudly outside most metro stations, there are lots of people who will hear you. There are thousands — and often tens of thousands — of people living within 800 metres of Montreal’s rail stations. And this is in a city with almost no skyscrapers! To create this graphic, we found the number of people in Montreal who live within 800 metres of the nearest rail station, which represents a 10 minute walk for a fully-grown human with average-sized legs. The Côte-Sainte-Catherine station has the most people living in its walkshed (about 28,000 people), followed by the Mont-Royal and Guy-Concordia stations (about 26,000 each). Mont Royal metro on the left (26,000 people), Montmorency on the right (6,000 people). Where would you rather live? Funnily enough, the metro station with the most foot traffic (Berri-UQAM) actually has less people living around it than the areas around the adjacent Beaudry, St. Laurent, and Sherbrooke stations. This is because many people going through Berri-UQAM don’t actually live there — they’re just stopping to transfer between the Orange, Green, and Yellow lines. Tweet at us!On the whole though, areas around metro stations are much more densethan the rest of Montreal: the population density within metro walksheds is more than 10,000 people/km², while population density outside of them is a mere 3,700 people/km². By giving Montrealers cheap, rapid, and reliable access to the rest of the city, metro stations encourage people to live nearby. But when people can’t live near stations (due to zoning or other reasons) you don’t see as much development, and neighbourhoods become much more car-reliant and “suburbified”. Consider Montreal’s AMT stations, which generally don’t have as many people living nearby as metro stations. AMT stations are often next to highways and surrounded by a sea of parking, while others are smack-dab in the middle of nowhere. The lack of dense housing nearby is one reason that the ridership numbers for the AMT (80,000 daily trips) pale in comparison to the mammoth numbers of the STM Metro (1,250,000 daily trips). When people live further away from stations, they have to rely on feeder buses or park-and-ride’s. To avoid that inconvenience, many people simply choose to use cars instead of taking public transit. Altogether, we’re proud that Montreal’s car cravings are comparatively light. When stacked up against similarly-sized North American cities, our public transit mode share is very high. Take a look: Originally posted by transit planner extraordinaire Jarret Walker on humantransit.orgLargely because of our city’s metro, over 20% of Montrealers take public transit to work, which is more than double the share in the metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Washington DC, and Seattle. Still, we can do better. In the STM’s Strategic Plan for 2020, one of the primary goals is to reduce the share of car trips from 48% of total trips down to 41%. To make up the difference, they hope to encourage more Montrealers to take public transit. There are many ways to acccomplish this goal: congestion pricing or better parking policies to discourage driving, increased service to boost transit’s convenience, and real-time customer information (iBUS anyone?). In particular, our walkshed graph shows that denser development should be an important part of the STM’s toolkit — notwithstanding the usual political hurdles. Our team at Transit App is also doing its part to make public transit more convenient in Montreal, and in many other cities around the world. From our Mile End office, our team is giving millions of people the flexibility and reliability of a car — without the burdens of actually owning one. Find out how we can help make your transit experience better: You can download Transit App for free on iPhoneand Android
  11. Changing the plans America’s oil capital is throwing up a few environmental surprises Jul 14th 2012 | HOUSTON | from the print edition STEVE KLINEBERG, a sociologist at Rice University, mentions a couple of events that made Houston’s leaders take notice of a looming problem. One was the day, in 1999, when their city overtook Los Angeles as America’s most polluted—evidence that the rise in asthma attacks among the city’s children, and the students passing out on football pitches, were no coincidence. Another was when Houston came up short in its bid to compete to host the 2012 Olympics. No one on the United States Olympics Committee voted for it, despite the fact that Houston had a brand-new stadium and had promised to turn an old sports field into the world’s largest air-conditioned track-and-field arena. At a casual glance, Houston looks much as it ever did: a tangle of freeways running through a hodgepodge of skyscrapers, strip malls and mixed districts. A closer inspection, though, shows signs of change. The transport authority, which branched into light rail in 2004, is now planning three new lines, adding more than 20 miles of track. Most of the traffic lights now boast LED bulbs, rather than the incandescent sort. More than half the cars in the official city fleet are hybrid or electric, and in May a bike-sharing programme began. Every Wednesday a farmers’ market takes place by the steps of city hall. Other changes are harder to see. The energy codes for buildings have been overhauled and the city is, astonishingly, America’s biggest municipal buyer of renewable energy; about a third of its power comes from Texan wind farms. Houston, in other words, is going green. Laura Spanjian, the city’s director of sustainability, says that businesses are increasingly likely to get on board if they can see the long-term savings or the competitive advantages that flow from creating a more attractive city. She adds an important clarification: “We’re not mandating that they have to do this.” That would not go down well. Houston is the capital of America’s energy industry, and its leaders have traditionally been wary of environmental regulation, both at home and abroad. In fact the city has been sceptical of regulations in general, and even more of central planning. Houston famously has no zoning, which helps explain why the city covers some 600 square miles. It is America’s fourth-largest city by population, but less than half as densely populated as sprawling Los Angeles. People are heavily dependent on cars, the air quality is poor and access to green space is haphazard. At the same time, Houston has jobs, a low cost of living and cheap property. Many people have accepted that trade-off. Between 2000 and 2010 the greater metropolitan area added more than 1.2m people, making it America’s fastest-growing city. Still, the public is taking more interest in sustainability, and for a number of reasons. As the city’s population has swelled, the suburbs have become more crowded. Some of the growth has come from the domestic migration of young professionals with a taste for city life. And despite living in an oil-industry hub, the people of Houston are still aware of the cost of energy; during the summer of 2008, when petrol prices hovered around $4 a gallon, the papers reported a surge of people riding their bicycles to bus stops so that they could take public transport to work. The annual Houston Area Survey from Rice’s Kinder Institute also shows a change. This year’s survey found that 56% think a much better public transport system is “very important” for the city’s future. A similarly solid majority said the Metro system should use all its revenue for improvements to public transport, rather than diverting funds to mend potholes. In the 1990s, most respondents were more concerned about the roads. People’s views about houses have changed, too. In 2008 59% said they would prefer a big house with a big garden, even if that meant they had to use their car to go everywhere. Just 36% preferred a smaller house within walking distance of shops and workplaces. By 2012, preferences were running the other way: 51% liked the idea of a smaller house in a more interesting district, and only 47% said they wanted the lavish McMansion. http://www.economist.com/node/21558632
  12. jesseps

    the white stuff here

    snow in old montreal is so beautiful. plus my first winter living downtown yay
  13. Earth to anglos: This is Quebec. Bus drivers speak French BY NICHOLAS ROBINSON, THE GAZETTE JANUARY 7, 2014 I’m an expat American whose family transferred here (my father worked for ICAO) in 1976. In 1988, after having gone to college and graduated in California, I moved to Japan and spent five years there, teaching English. When I returned, my parents had relocated to California, but left their condo here unrented and unoccupied. Naturally, I chose to resettle here instead of California, and I’ve been here ever since. I spoke French before I came to Montreal, having learned it in francophone African countries, so I had no problems getting around Montreal. Except in my lengthy absence, Bill 101 had been passed, and many anglos were hightailing it out on the 401. It was strange coming back to a Montreal that had language issues; I’d never had the Eaton-fat-lady experience while I had been here in the 1970s and had never had any problems back then. And at first, actually, for over a decade, I resented the ridiculous sign law that made English two-thirds smaller than French on signs, plus all the “tongue-trooper” shenanigans over the years. But then my mind started changing, and today I’m pretty much the polar opposite to what I was in 1994. I now teach Japanese to individuals in Montreal, having enthusiastically learned it from scratch while in Japan. Most of my students are francophone, but we usually end up having the class with a mixture of all three languages. Now when I hear about people “not getting service” in English in such institutions as hospitals, or not being responded to in English by bus drivers, my stance is: tough luck. When I moved to Japan, I quickly discovered that almost nobody spoke English, and that in order to function, I would have to learn Japanese — and fast, which I did. And now I feel maybe Bill 101 should have gone farther and made all signs only in French. After all, we are living in a French-speaking province that just happens to be in the middle of a vast country called Canada. Any anglos who have been here for any length of time — over a year or so — should at least be able to carry out basic living functions in French and learn how to read signs in French. The wheedle-factor here is enormous. To my mind, the French speakers of Quebec have been incredibly tolerant of the anglophone “community,” and a vast swath of them have gone to the immense trouble of learning English — when they don’t have to at all. Yet they do, happily and willingly and without a single murmur of protest. Why then, can’t the so-called “anglophone community,” knowingly residing in a province that has every right in the world to make everything in French, not do a better job of learning French? Earth to anglos: this is Quebec. In Quebec most people speak French. Bus drivers have every right in the world to respond to you in French, even when you speak to them in English. And my suggestion to these besieged individuals is simply: learn how to speak French. There are literally hundreds of places where you can learn it absolutely free. Or take some of my classes and move to Japan, where there is a severe shortage of English teachers; I promise there are no French speakers there to hound you. Nicholas Robinson teaches Japanese in Montreal. © Copyright © The Montreal Gazette
  14. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4W_F1RKR0A I don't think anyone here would like this. It would beat living in apartment thats for sure. Plus if it cost like US$500,000 in Tokyo. It can't be that expensive here.
  15. Netload.in (link) Interesting show. I would have posted a Megaupload file but there isn't one yet.
  16. http://www.montrealgazette.com/Life/Girl+raised+dogs+Siberia/1636491/story.html Creepy....
  17. Located in one of Montreal's most prestigious and central sectors, Le Luxor condominium offers a living standard of high quality and luxury.
  18. Step aside Toronto, the next housing boom is in Montreal Karen Mazurkewich, Financial Post Published: Friday, January 11, 2008 Gordon Beck/Canwest News Service What sets Montreal apart from other urban centers is the fact that it has retained its neighbourhood mosaic. When Montreal architect Henri Cleinge purchased an old wine depot in Montreal's Little Italy district in 2002, he transformed it into a contemporary three-unit condo with polished wood and concrete floors, iron staircases and stainless steel kitchens. He then flipped two of the units for seven times the original investment of $200,000. Mr. Cleinge had a few sleepless nights wondering whether the units would sell. He didn't have to worry. In Montreal, there's big demand for contemporary-design living. Much has been made about Toronto's big museum projects and condo lineups, but Montreal is also changing its shape. Toronto housing prices have experienced 58% growth since 2000. The island of Montreal, however, has seen housing sales jump 50%, but the city itself has gone up 94%. In addition, a new concert hall and 28-storey condo tower is being erected atop Place des Arts metro, two mega hospitals are under construction and Sotheby's International Realty recently entered the market. As well, the largest private real estate investment in decades, involving 4,000 dwellings and a shopping plaza, is scheduled to get a green light from city hall. Montreal's mojo is back. But its not the big urban projects that are redefining this city. What makes Montreal distinct from other urban centres is the fact it has retained its neighbourhood mosaic. The most famous is the northeastern district known as Plateau-Mont-Royal. The Plateau has become the most expensive address in the city, with its average housing price jumping 105% in the past seven years. It's also one of the reasons Montreal consistently ranks among the top 25 cities in the world for quality of life. Like Greenwich Village in New York or Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco, the Plateau is where culture and haute couture intersect. In the 1980s, the Plateau was a string of shabby row houses. Owners lived on the main floor and rented the walk-ups. But the working-class enclave changed dramatically in the 1990s, when new legislation made it possible to subdivide duplexes and triplexes into condo apartments. "Instead of a single owner, who would rent one or two of the other floors, now each apartment is owned individually and people are now willing to invest," says Susan Bronson, a Montreal heritage conservationist. The artists and architects that moved into the area with nothing in their pockets can now afford to invest. The hood became hip because it maintained "high bohemian index," she says. Montreal's Mile End, a subsection within the Plateau immortalized by Canadian author Mordecai Richler, has seen the greatest upheaval. Gone are the icons: the discount grocery store Warshaw's, Simcha's Fruit Market and St. Laurent Bakery have closed. Instead, a slew of new high-concept design stores, including Interversion and Latitude Nord, have staked out Boulevard Saint-Laurent, turning it into the new fashion Mecca. Even the old rag-trade factories, religious buildings and empty lots have received a radical facelift. Architect Eric Gauthier, who created the landmark Espace Go on Saint-Laurent, is currently constructing the all-new Théâtre de Quat'Sous on formerly grungy Avenue Pins. The firm Lepointe Magne has also made its mark on the Plateau, redesigning the public swimming pool Bain Lévesque and converting an old fire hall into the high concept Théâtre Espace Libre. In Plateau's housing, one of the first innovations was Atelier Big City's 1989 Sept-Plex condominium project on Clark Street, which made creative use of the narrow street fronts and back lanes. Atelier Build reinvented the notion of infill with its 2004 "thin house" project along Avenue L'Hotel-du-ville. When she started her architectural company with partner Michael Carroll 12 years ago, Danita Rooyakkers of Atelier Build, says few others were betting on the Plateau. Political instability in the province was a deterrent for developers, but it was the perfect time for a young architect with modest means and big dreams. Ms. Rooyakkers biked around Plateau in search of cheap empty lots and made her mark by eschewing the traditional walk-ups, where every family gets a floor, and subdivided the property so each owner has a front door, backyard and terraces. By opening up the walls and adding skylights, the architectural firm created a vertical loft. It won awards because it offered another prototype for high-density Montreal living, she says. The design aesthetic in Montreal has been tempered by activism. The Plateau is not only governed by a planning advisory committee stacked with architects and landscapers, it has community watchdogs galore, including the Mile End Citizens Committee and Urban Ecology. Every architect working here has had to face fierce town hall forums before building begins. "As educated local residents, we have both a sense of entitlement and empowerment," says Owen Rose, an architect and head of the Urban Ecology group, which focuses on urban green spaces. "It's easy to get involved in issues because we are constantly bumping into each other on the street in this urban village," he says, adding that community involvement has permeated the local culture. As one of the first architects to help reshape the plateau, Mr. Gauthier was frequently forced to marry old facades with his slick contemporary style to meet the borough's strict guidelines. With Théâtre de Quat'Sous, he's been given an exemption: the historic synagogue in which the theater is currently housed didn't meet safety codes so it will be replaced by a showy new architectural structure. Mr. Gauthier is concerned about a public outcry, but he's excited about the new design. "If you want to keep the city alive, you need to add new buildings and new layers." While the strict development guidelines built a "cohesive" neighbourhood, he says, "we've passed the point where conservation should now trump freedom." Mr. Cleinge, the architect, is trying to exercise that freedom. In recent years he has revamped in his sleek industrial design look a microbrewery on Duluth Street as well as the Les Chocolats de Chloe of Roy Street East. He avoids wood stairs and plastered ceilings, preferring concrete and steel for urban living spaces. The look reflects the city's history, he says. "Montreal is an industrial city with a large garment industry so it's appropriate language to use in a residential context," he says. Luckily for him, clients such as Stéphane Dion and Éloïse Corbeil, typical Plateau dwellers, are looking to restyle their 1880s duplex. Ms. Corbeil's father purchased the building on Christophe Columb Street in 1996 when she and her brother needed a place to live while they attended university. Ms. Corbeil's brother has since moved to the United States, but the 33-year-old writer-filmmaker and her lawyer husband still love the mixed neighbourhood. They looked in the swank neighbourhoods of Westmount and Outremont after the birth of their two children, but decided to stay put. "We didn't want to go to the suburbs because we like the diversity here," says Ms. Corbeil. Conscious of their limitations but eager for a contemporary style, they hired Mr. Cleinge after seeing his work in a magazine. His mandate was to keep a portion of the "stacked wood" interior shell of the house, but rebuild the place from top bottom. He proposed a mezzanine open-style approach to filter more light into the home and create more space. Concrete floors and iron railings are part of the new plan. For most young buyers, the Plateau is now untouchable - meaning overpriced. Its evolution, however, has created a ripple effect across the city and intensive gentrification is happening in the shabby districts of Point St. Charles and the Jean Talon market area. "The Plateau has matured," says Mr. Cleinge. But the condoization of Montreal has only begun. Financial Post [email protected] http://www.financialpost.com/magazine/family_finance/story.html?id=231679
  19. A stunning painting of a possible future (or present depending on how you look at it)… walled cities of techno-utopia surrounded by the rest of the world living in the middle ages. Hi-Res: http://www.radoxist.com/picture/54 Low-Res:
  20. Grumpy

    looking for this...

    I know there is an artist living in Montreal who paints buildings with nude men on it. Does someone know this guy's website please?
  21. Quality of Living global city rankings 2009 – Mercer survey United Kingdom London, 28 April 2009 * European cities dominate the top of the ranking * Vienna scores highest for overall quality of living, Baghdad the lowest * Singapore ranks top for city infrastructure; London ranks eighth Vienna has passed Zurich to take the top spot as the world’s city with the best quality of living, according to the Mercer 2009 Quality of Living Survey. Geneva retains its position in third place, while Vancouver and Auckland are now joint fourth in the rankings. Overall, European cities continue to dominate the top locations in this year’s survey. In the UK, London ranks at 38, while Birmingham and Glasgow are jointly at 56. In the US, the highest ranking entry is Honolulu at position 29. Singapore (26) is the top-scoring Asian city followed by Tokyo at 35. Baghdad, ranking 215, remains at the bottom of the table. The rankings are based on a point-scoring index, which sees Vienna score 108.6, and Baghdad 14.4. Cities are ranked against New York as the base city with an index score of 100. Mercer’s Quality of Living ranking covers 215 cities and is conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments. See top 50 quality of living rankings below. Slagin Parakatil, senior researcher at Mercer, commented: “As a result of the current financial crisis, multinationals are looking to review their international assignment policies with a view to cutting costs.” “Many companies plan to reduce the number of medium to long-term international assignments and localise their expatriate compensation packages where possible though the hardship allowance, based on quality of living criteria, will remain an essential component of the package,” he added. This year’s ranking also identifies the cities with the best infrastructure based on electricity supply, water availability, telephone and mail services, public transport provision, traffic congestion and the range of international flights from local airports. Singapore is at the top of this index (score 109.1) followed by Munich in second place and Copenhagen in third. Japanese cities Tsukuba (4) and Yokohama (5) fill the next two slots, whilst Dusseldorf and Vancouver share sixth place. Baghdad ranks at the bottom of the table with a score of only 19.6. See top 50 infrastructure rankings below Mr Parakatil commented: “Infrastructure has a significant effect on the quality of living experienced by expatriates. Whilst often taken for granted when functioning to a high standard, a city’s infrastructure can generate severe hardship when it is lacking. Companies need to provide adequate allowances to compensate their international workers for these and other hardships.” Americas There have been few changes in the rankings for North American cities. Canadian cities still dominate the top of the index for this region. Vancouver (4) retains the top spot and Honolulu (29) is the city in the United States with the highest quality of living. Washington and New York remain in positions 44 and 49 respectively. In Central and South America, San Juan in Puerto Rico retains the highest ranking at 72, followed by Montevideo at 79. Port au Prince (206) in Haiti continues to rank lowest in the region and has gone down four places in the overall ranking due to food shortages experienced in 2008 and the subsequent riots. Mr Parakatil commented: “A number of South and Central American countries have experienced positive changes. But on the whole, political and security issues, and the incidence of natural disasters, continue to hinder the improvement of quality of living in the region. Shortages of consumer goods have also contributed to a decline in quality of living in some cities.” In terms of city infrastructure, Vancouver (6) again tops the ranking for the whole of the region, with Atlanta following in position 15. Santiago in Chile has the best city infrastructure in Central and South America, whereas Port au Prince is again the lowest ranking at 212. Europe Europe’s cities once more dominate the world’s top 10 for quality of living. Vienna is the city rated with the best quality of living worldwide, moving up one place in the rankings following improvements in Austria’s political and social environment. The rest of the top 10 for Europe are dominated by German and Swiss cities, most of them retaining last year’s ranking and scores. Zurich, in second place, is followed by Geneva (3), Dusseldorf (6), Munich (7), Frankfurt (8) and Bern (9). Many Eastern European cities have seen an increase in quality of living. A number of countries which joined the European Union back in 2004 have experienced consistent improvement with increased stability, rising living standards and greater availability of international consumer goods. Ljubljana in Slovenia, for example, moves up four places to reach 78 while Bratislava moves up three places to 88. Zagreb moves three places to 103. In the city infrastructure index, German cities fair particularly well with Munich (2) the highest ranked in the region, followed by Dusseldorf (6) and Frankfurt in joint eighth place with London. “German city infrastructure is amongst the best in the world, in part due to its first class airport facilities and connections to other international destinations” said Mr Parakatil. London’s ranking in the infrastructure index reflects the high level of public services offered, with its extensive public transport network and wide variety of telecommunication services. Middle East and Africa Dubai (77) in the United Arab Emirates and Port Louis in Mauritius (82) are the region’s cities with the best quality of living. Dubai’s transport facilities have witnessed improvements, with the development of its road infrastructure and expansion of its international airport, and the city is up six places in the ranking. Cape Town in South Africa, previously the city in the region with the best quality of living, has dropped substantially in this year’s ratings (from 80 to 87 in 2009). This move follows violent riots in South Africa’s main cities in 2008. Baghdad (215) retains its position at the bottom of the table, though its index score has increased (from 13.5 to 14.4 in 2009) due to some slight improvements in its infrastructure and steps taken to encourage investment. Nevertheless, the lack of security and stability continue to have a large impact on quality of living and the city’s score remains far behind Bangui (29.3) in the Central African Republic, which is second to last. In the city infrastructure index, most of the region’s cities rank below 100. The exceptions are Dubai (35),Tel Aviv (55) Jerusalem (70), Abu Dhabi (72), Port Louis in Mauritius (92) and Cairo (93). Baghdad (215) is again at the bottom of the list with a city infrastructure score of 19.6, while Port Harcourt in Nigeria is at 214, scoring 30.5. Mr Parakatil continued: “Many countries on the African continent are experiencing continued political and economic unrest, making life for expatriates very difficult. This is generally reflected in the higher compensation and benefits packages offered there by multinationals, compared to other regions of the world.” Asia Pacific Auckland (4) retains its position as the highest ranking city for quality of living in the region. Sydney follows at 10 and Wellington in New Zealand at 12. While the majority of the region’s cities retain a similar ranking to last year, Singapore (26) is the region’s highest riser, up six places since 2008. The city has gained importance as a financial centre and offers a wide range of international and private schools to cater to its expatriate community. Beijing has also moved three places in the ranking, up from 116 to 113, mainly due to improvements in public transport facilities from the Olympic Games last August. Dropping down in the rankings, mainly due to a decline in stability and security are Bangkok (from 109 in 2008 to 120) and Mumbai (from 142 to 148). Thailand’s political turmoil continued throughout 2008 and 2009 with frequent and violent demonstrations and rallies taking place in Bangkok. Terrorist attacks in Mumbai have led to the city’s decline in quality of living for expatriates. Dhaka in Bangladesh holds the lowest ranking in the region at 205. Mr Parakatil commented: “As a region, Asia Pacific is highly diverse. Recent political unrest and terrorist attacks in some cities in the region have negatively impacted the quality of living there. In addition to providing an appropriate hardship allowance, companies need to make sure they review their expatriate strategies by implementing specific safety measures such as ensuring their expatriates’ accommodation is under surveillance and providing effective channels of communication should evacuation be necessary.” For city infrastructure, Singapore has the highest score world-wide (109.1). The city boasts an airport with excellent facilities and connections, as well as an efficient and extensive public transport network. Other high rankers in the region include Hong Kong (8), Sydney (11) and Tokyo (12). Dhaka ranks lowest in the region at 197. Notes for Editors The worldwide rankings are produced from the most recent Worldwide Quality of Living Survey, conducted by Mercer. Individual reports are produced for each city surveyed. Comparative quality of living indexes between a base city and a host city are available, as are multiple city comparisons. Further information is available from Mercer Client Services, on tel. +48 22 434 5383. Alternatively, please visit http://www.mercer.com/qualityofliving'>http://www.mercer.com/qualityofliving Data was largely collected between September and November 2008 and is regularly updated to take account of changing circumstances. In particular, the assessments are revised in the case of any new developments. The Mercer database contains more than 420 cities, however only 215 cities have been considered for the quality of living 2008 ranking in order to compare them from one year to the next. Compensating expatriates to live and work in difficult locations: determining appropriate allowances and incentives The provision of incentives to reward and recognise the efforts that employees and their families make when taking on international assignments remains a typical practice, particularly for difficult locations. Common incentives include a quality of living allowance and mobility premium. Companies need to be able to determine their compensation package in a rational, consistent and systematic way. Quality of living or hardship allowances are designed to compensate expatriates for differences in the quality of living between their home and host locations. The mobility premium is more intended to compensate for the inconvenience of being uprooted and having to work in another country. The former is typically location-related whilst a mobility premium is usually independent of the host location. A number of major international companies combine these premiums but the vast majority of international companies provide them separately. The latter approach has the advantage of clarity and transparency. Mercer hardship allowance recommendations Mercer evaluates local living conditions in all the 420 cities it surveys worldwide. Living conditions are analysed according to 39 factors, grouped in 10 categories: * Political and social environment (political stability, crime, law enforcement, etc) * Economic environment (currency exchange regulations, banking services, etc) * Socio-cultural environment (censorship, limitations on personal freedom, etc) * Health and sanitation (medical supplies and services, infectious diseases, sewage, waste disposal, air pollution, etc) * Schools and education (standard and availability of international schools, etc) * Public services and transportation (electricity, water, public transport, traffic congestion, etc) * Recreation (restaurants, theatres, cinemas, sports and leisure, etc) * Consumer goods (availability of food/daily consumption items, cars, etc) * Housing (housing, household appliances, furniture, maintenance services, etc) * Natural environment (climate, record of natural disasters) The scores attributed to each factor allow for city-to-city comparisons to be made. The result is a Quality of Living Index which compares the relative differences between any two locations. For the indices to be used in a practical manner, Mercer has created a grid that allows companies to link the resulting index to a Quality of Living Allowance amount by recommending a percentage value in relation to the index. The following list of rankings is provided to journalists for reference, and should not be published in full. The top 10 and bottom 10 cities in either list may be reproduced in a table. For a full copy of the city rankings please contact the press office. <table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellspacing=1 cellpadding=0 width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:white;border:outset #0057A6 1.0pt'> <tr style='height:24.0pt'> <td width="10%" style='width:10.0%;border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background: #0057A6;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt;height:24.0pt'> <p><strong><span style='color:white'>Rank 2009</span></strong></p> </td> <td width="10%" style='width:10.0%;border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background: #0057A6;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt;height:24.0pt'> <p class=style3><strong><span style='color:white'>Rank 2008</span></strong></p> </td> <td width="30%" style='width:30.0%;border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background: #0057A6;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt;height:24.0pt'> <p><strong><span style='color:white'>City</span></strong></p> </td> <td width="30%" style='width:30.0%;border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background: #0057A6;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt;height:24.0pt'> <p><strong><span style='color:white'>Country</span></strong></p> </td> <td width="10%" style='width:10.0%;border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background: #0057A6;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt;height:24.0pt'> <p><strong><span style='color:white'>Index 2009</span></strong></p> </td> <td width="10%" style='width:10.0%;border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background: #0057A6;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt;height:24.0pt'> <p><strong><span style='color:white'>Index 2008</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>1</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>VIENNA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>AUSTRIA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>108.6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.9</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>1</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>ZURICH</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SWITZERLAND</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>108</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>108</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>3</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>GENEVA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SWITZERLAND</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.9</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.9</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>4</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>4</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>VANCOUVER</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>CANADA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.4</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.6</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>4</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>5</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>AUCKLAND</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>NEW ZEALAND</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.4</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.3</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>DUSSELDORF</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>GERMANY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107.2</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>7</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>7</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>MUNICH</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>GERMANY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>8</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>7</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>FRANKFURT</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>GERMANY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>106.8</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>107</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>9</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>9</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>BERN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SWITZERLAND</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>106.5</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>106.5</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>10</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>10</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SYDNEY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>AUSTRALIA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>106.3</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>106.3</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>11</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>11</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>COPENHAGEN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>DENMARK</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>106.2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>106.2</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>12</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>12</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>WELLINGTON</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>NEW ZEALAND</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105.9</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105.8</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>13</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>13</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>AMSTERDAM</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>NETHERLANDS</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105.7</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105.7</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>14</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>14</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>BRUSSELS</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>BELGIUM</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105.4</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105.4</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>15</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>15</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>TORONTO</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>CANADA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105.3</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105.3</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>16</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>19</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>OTTAWA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>CANADA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.7</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>16</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>16</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>BERLIN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>GERMANY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>105</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>18</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>17</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>MELBOURNE</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>AUSTRALIA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.8</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.8</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>19</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>17</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>LUXEMBOURG</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>LUXEMBOURG</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.8</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>20</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>20</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>STOCKHOLM</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SWEDEN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.5</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.5</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>21</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>21</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>PERTH</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>AUSTRALIA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.3</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.3</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>22</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>22</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>MONTREAL</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>CANADA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.2</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>23</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>23</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>NURNBERG</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>GERMANY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.1</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>104.1</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>24</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>24</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>OSLO</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>NORWAY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.7</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.7</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>25</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>25</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>DUBLIN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>IRELAND</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.5</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>26</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>32</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SINGAPORE</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SINGAPORE</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.5</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>102.9</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>26</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>25</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>CALGARY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>CANADA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.5</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.5</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>28</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>27</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>HAMBURG</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>GERMANY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.4</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.4</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>29</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>28</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>HONOLULU, HI</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED STATES</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.1</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103.1</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>30</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>29</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SAN FRANCISCO, CA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED STATES</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>30</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>29</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>HELSINKI</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>FINLAND</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>30</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>29</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>ADELAIDE</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>AUSTRALIA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>103</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>33</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>32</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>PARIS</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>FRANCE</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>102.9</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>102.9</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>34</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>34</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>BRISBANE</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>AUSTRALIA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>102.4</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>102.4</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>35</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>35</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>TOKYO</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>JAPAN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>102.2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>102.2</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>35</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>37</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>BOSTON, MA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED STATES</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>102.2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>101.8</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>37</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>36</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>LYON</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>FRANCE</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>101.9</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>101.9</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>38</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>38</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>YOKOHAMA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>JAPAN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>101.6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>101.6</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>38</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>38</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>LONDON</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED KINGDOM</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>101.6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>101.6</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>40</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>40</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>KOBE</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>JAPAN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.9</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.9</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>41</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>41</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>MILAN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>ITALY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.8</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.8</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>42</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>48</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>PORTLAND, OR</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED STATES</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.2</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>42</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>42</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>BARCELONA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SPAIN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.6</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.6</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>44</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>44</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>WASHINGTON, DC</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED STATES</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.3</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.3</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>44</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>44</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>OSAKA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>JAPAN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.3</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.3</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>44</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>44</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>LISBON</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>PORTUGAL</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.3</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.3</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>44</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>44</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>CHICAGO, IL</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED STATES</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.3</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.3</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>48</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>43</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>MADRID</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SPAIN</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.2</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100.5</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>49</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>49</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>NEW YORK CITY, NY</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED STATES</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>100</p> </td> </tr> <tr style='height:13.5pt'> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>50</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>50</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>SEATTLE, WA</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>UNITED STATES</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>99.8</p> </td> <td style='border:inset #0057A6 1.0pt;background:#CFE7FF;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt; height:13.5pt'> <p>99.8</p> </td> </tr> </table> Mercer is a leading global provider of consulting, outsourcing and investment services. Mercer works with clients to solve their most complex benefit and human capital issues, designing and helping manage health, retirement and other benefits. It is a leader in benefit outsourcing. Mercer’s investment services include investment consulting and investment management. Mercer’s 18,000 employees are based in more than 40 countries. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc., which lists its stock (ticker symbol: MMC) on the New York, Chicago and London stock exchanges. For more information, visit http://www.mercer.com
  22. World's Top 50 Cities by Quality of Living (Table) By Zoya Shilova Aug. 11 2008 (Bloomberg) -- The following table presents the world's top fifty cities by quality of living, according to a survey from Mercer LLC: ============================================================================ Rank Rank City Country Quality of living index 2008 2007 2008 2007 ============================================================================ 1 1 Zurich Switzerland 108.0 108.1 2 3 Vienna Austria 107.9 107.7 2 2 Geneva Switzerland 107.9 108.0 4 3 Vancouver Canada 107.6 107.7 5 5 Auckland New Zealand 107.3 107.3 6 5 Dusseldorf Germany 107.2 107.3 7 8 Munich Germany 107.0 106.9 7 7 Frankfurt Germany 107.0 107.1 9 9 Bern Switzerland 106.5 106.5 10 9 Sydney Australia 106.3 106.5 11 11 Copenhagen Denmark 106.2 106.2 ============================================================================ Rank Rank City Country Quality of living index 2008 2007 2008 2007 ============================================================================ 12 12 Wellington New Zealand 105.8 105.8 13 13 Amsterdam Netherlands 105.7 105.7 14 14 Brussels Belgium 105.4 105.6 15 15 Toronto Canada 105.3 105.4 16 16 Berlin Germany 105.0 105.2 17 17 Melbourne Australia 104.8 105.0 17 18 Luxembourg Luxembourg 104.8 104.8 19 18 Ottawa Canada 104.7 104.8 20 20 Stockholm Sweden 104.5 104.7 21 21 Perth Australia 104.3 104.5 22 22 Montreal Canada 104.2 104.3 23 23 Nurnberg Germany 104.1 104.2 24 26 Oslo Norway 103.7 103.5 25 27 Dublin Ireland 103.5 103.3 25 24 Calgary Canada 103.5 103.6 27 24 Hamburg Germany 103.4 103.6 28 27 Honolulu U.S. 103.1 103.3 ============================================================================ Rank Rank City Country Quality of living index 2008 2007 2008 2007 ============================================================================ 29 29 San Francisco U.S. 103.0 103.2 29 30 Helsinki Finland 103.0 103.1 29 30 Adelaide Australia 103.0 103.1 32 34 Singapore Singapore 102.9 102.5 32 33 Paris France 102.9 102.7 34 32 Brisbane Australia 102.4 102.8 35 35 Tokyo Japan 102.2 102.3 36 36 Lyon France 101.9 101.9 37 36 Boston U.S. 101.8 101.9 38 38 Yokohama Japan 101.6 101.7 38 39 London U.K. 101.6 101.2 40 40 Kobe Japan 100.9 101.0 41 49 Milan Italy 100.8 99.0 42 41 Barcelona Spain 100.6 100.6 43 42 Madrid Spain 100.5 100.5 44 44 Washington, DC U.S. 100.3 100.4 44 42 Osaka Japan 100.3 100.5 ============================================================================ Rank Rank City Country Quality of living index 2008 2007 2008 2007 ============================================================================ 44 47 Lisbon Portugal 100.3 100.1 44 44 Chicago U.S. 100.3 100.4 48 46 Portland U.S. 100.2 100.3 49 48 New York City U.S. 100.0 100.0 50 49 Seattle U.S. 99.8 99.9 http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aGLoywSw2XP4